Strictly speaking, a chandelier is any multi-branch ceiling light. But what we understand in popular usage as a chandelier today - a grand ceiling light fitting with many lights and multiple crystal prisms - is the result of a long evolutionary process of this type of light. Originally made in wood as a cross with spikes on which to fix the candles, they were able to be lowered for lighting, and then hoisted to a suitable height by means of a pulley. From the 15th century they were made in a wider variety of materials including brass, wrought iron, gilded wood and silver. By the 18th century, developments in glassmaking allowed for the introduction of prisms in their manufacture, because of their light scattering properties. An elaborate chandelier was a status symbol of the wealthy in the 18th and 19th century and materials now used included bronze and porcelain. Manufacturers of the crystal prisms included famous names in glassmaking such as Baccarat and Waterford. Prestigious English manufacturers of the time included Parker & Perry, of Fleet Street, F.& C. OSLER of London and Birmingham and Maydwell and Windle.
A twelve arm crystal chandelier, with a diamond point knopped stem below a long brass rod, with twelve undulating arms hung with beads and cushion shaped cut drops and supporting cut crystal dishes with electric candles. Height 51 cm. Diameter 86 cm. (stem
A pair of striking Venini crystal chandeliers, circa 1970s, a design by Camer for Venini, a brilliant cascading muli-tiered arrangement of trihedral prisms hung from polished brass arms and chain stems. Length 88 cm. Diameter 43 cm
A spectacular pair of crystal chandeliers. 20th century, the chandeliers, each with thirty electric candles, of waisted birdcage form with ten curvaceous arms supporting three arms apiece and richly embellished with curvaceous scalloped drops and diamond c
A fine pair of early 20th century chandeliers, each with the central shaped standard with a circular corona, emanating six scrolling arms terminating in drip pans and hung with crystal buttons and prism drops.
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