Strictly speaking, a chandelier is any multi-branch ceiling light. But what we understand in popular usage as a chandelier today - a grand ceiling light fitting with many lights and multiple crystal prisms - is the result of a long evolutionary process of this type of light. Originally made in wood as a cross with spikes on which to fix the candles, they were able to be lowered for lighting, and then hoisted to a suitable height by means of a pulley. From the 15th century they were made in a wider variety of materials including brass, wrought iron, gilded wood and silver. By the 18th century, developments in glassmaking allowed for the introduction of prisms in their manufacture, because of their light scattering properties. An elaborate chandelier was a status symbol of the wealthy in the 18th and 19th century and materials now used included bronze and porcelain. Manufacturers of the crystal prisms included famous names in glassmaking such as Baccarat and Waterford. Prestigious English manufacturers of the time included Parker & Perry, of Fleet Street, F.& C. OSLER of London and Birmingham and Maydwell and Windle.
Waterford crystal chandelier with six branches, all with eight crystal drops stamped with the Waterford mark, the lower basket with six complete crystal drops and a cut crystal ball, the upper basket with nine crystal drops (one drop missing) height 80 cm
A pair of six arm Waterford chandeliers, contemporary, 'Avoca' pattern, each with scrolling arms and sconces supporting candle style lights and hung with prism drops, with maker's mark. Height 98 cm. Diameter 64 cm. (approx)
A pair of Waterford crystal chandeliers 20th century, the central stem of crystal beaded tiers with a lower shaped dish supporting the six looped branches which are suspended with long drops, approx 90 cm high
A 20th century cut crystal ten light chandelier by Waterford, the central moulded glass stem issuing five short and five long shaped arms, with pendant drops, wired for electricity. Width 70 cm97 cm high
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