An English brass tabletop telescope on stand, by Springer, Bristol, 19th century, circa 1840, the 49 cm brass body tube with side screw focus adjustment, on a brass tripod base, the tube signed Springer, Clare Street, Bristol
circa. A Latin term meaning 'about', often used in the antique trade to give an approximate date for the piece, usually considered to be five years on either side of the circa year. Thus, circa 1900 means the piece was made about 1900, probably between 1895 and 1905. The expression is sometimes abbreviated to c.1900.
The buyers premium is an additional percentage charge on the hammer price of the item, imposed by the auction house to cover administrative costs. The buyers premium percentage varies between auction houses, with a range of 12.5% to 22%.